Toxicology & Histopathology

Toxicology & histopathology (T&H) offers services designed to help clients to reduce time and costs of preclinical development through efficient and useful solutions.

Methods include Standing with H&E and immunologic procedures such as immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence. T&H supports preclinical toxicology in studies of morpho-functional correlation and in defining the toxicologic profile of the substances to analyze. The experimental procedures are performed according to relevant standard operational procedure (SOP).


Experimental Activities


General Toxicity Studies:  single and repeated dose in rodents, different routes of administration:

Dose Range Finding (DRF)

Maximum Tolerated Dosing (MTD)

Sub-chronic Toxicity

Chronic Toxicity








Clinical Pathology

Complete panels of standard parameters are currently applied on serum/plasma and urine samples from both Discovery and Toxicology Studies.
Hematology and leukocytic differential counting; microscopic examination of cell morphology
Biochemical tests
Coagulation tests
Urinalyses; microscopic examination of the sediment
Development of customized biochemical panels (e.g., for chronic ocular inflammatory diseases or dysmetabolic syndromes)

Anatomy and Histopathology

Dissection techniques, macroscopic evaluation of the organs/tissues - assessment of the organ weights, examination of the histological sections
Identification of treatment-related lesions, distinguishing adverse versus adaptive changes
characterization of their outcome or regression after treatment discontinuation
establishment of the cause of unscheduled deaths and of its relation to the treatment
identification of the target organs of toxicity
Gross Pathology analyzed by direct observation thorugh stereomicroscope

Tissue sampling and Histopathology

Preservation of tissues (with fixatives and/or criopreservation)

Sampling and cutting of organs, performed according to SOP to ensure the reproducibility of the anatomical site of each organ to examine, the number of fragments necessary for an exhaustive tissue exploration and the section plane

Histopathology: special research approaches

Customized panels of biomarkers according to the Sponsor request and objectives
Characterization of specific expression patterns in several disease models
Novel biomarker expression in experimental tumor models are also intensively investigated, by the use of panel of highly purified and specific antibodies
Techniques of Immunohistochemistry/Immunofluorescence
HAMAMATSU NanoZoomer 2.0 RS NIKON, LAS X – Leica, ImageJ